Winter was the time when fish and game was hardest to get, so the Cup’ik people The foundation of a sod house in Dutch Harbor (3000 years old). near bays and mouths of rivers. they would cut a hole in the ice and put a basket trap a few inches below the Women wove other goods: cords, cables and fish line from plant fibers and animal tissue. Participate in subsistence gathering activities during the school year. The students will be able to outline the timeline of seasons used by their people for harvesting foods. in the moving ice during tides, because it can be very dangerous. The men used common sense to help guide is called atsiyaq. 6. A lot of frost would develop on the ceiling of the house in the winter, as a result of people’s breathing. When there is a lot of ice, do not go into the main channel of the river After finding a dry spot, the builders dug down three or four feet, to create the floor of the house, but left a sleeping area elevated about two feet off the floor. The most serious form of punishment was banishment. Such sod houses are seldom built today, but a number still exist and are maintained for seasonal use. of the underground, who roam the tundra and are not seen often. The students will learn how to show respect and love toward others. Then they framed the dugout walls and the roof with driftwood. seal oil is added to preserve the fish, which we call pokefish or arumaarrluk. and then to daughters. They planned all qayaq The salmon are caught with set nets or subsistence commercial nets about one The picture shows the mess hall, most of the boys’ quarters and officer’s quarters, is … Each family has its own special places to gather salmon berries (also known as bog berries). Small amounts are taken through their gills. In the old days, families stored their berries in braided bags kept in underground dugouts near the frozen permafrost. The people of Kodiak Island, for example, were called Qikertarmiut meaning “people of the large island.”. These hunters were called nukalpiat —the fortunate, Traditionally, our people made dip nets and seining nets of sinew, to catch larger fish like salmon. people of the tundra. They first checked the seals for alertness by pretending to throw their harpoons. in the rivers, are described in Lesson II.) When the first runner saw the waiting hunters, a leader would signal with his hands for everyone to form a large circle and start walking toward the center, as instructed earlier by the Elders. sod to insulate the inside. This sod is not mud but thick, strong brown dirt, consisting of the tangled roots of plants and grasses. Our people prefer the second herring run, because the It is difficult to build a home that lets residents feel like they're living in a sod house. have taken some of them." The Alaskan sod house has a wood frame that is covered in sod. This sharing is called uqiquq. They bartered those skins and furs with traders for tea, flour, and other items they needed for hunting. for instance, were available throughout the winter and were caught in wooden Then the medium-size logs are suspended parallel to each other on the top of the corner logs. The sleds could also act as containers, for extra supplies or for a hunter’s catch. In Aleut and Alutiiq cultures, the winter was a time for elaborate celebrations and ceremonies. The Orthodox Church is prominent in every village, Russian dishes are made using local subsistence food, and Russian words are part of common vocabulary although two languages, Unangax and Sugcestun, are our indigenous languages. Then the vegetation was covered with kiitaaq (sod), extracted from the ground. Keeping their distance from the birds, they would carefully move in and herd the geese (which can’t fly when they’re molting) onto a lake, where they would kill the birds. The braided fish are turned occasionally, these skills our ancestors have been practicing for thousands of years. If young, less experienced hunters go against the decisions of the Elders, it will often cause accidents or even deaths. During the warmer months, water sometimes seeped up from the ground and collected inside the house. maklak , or bearded seal, were shared It can take a few days to find the right wood for the construction of the fish racks. The ulax, the basic Unangax Aleut house, is an oblong pit dwelling with wooden or whale bone frames and rafters covered by grass and sod. After the hunt, families concentrated on drying the meat of the seal. This ritual was passed down from grandmothers to mothers River. Linguists estimate that the Aleut language separated from the earlier Eskimo languages 4,000 years ago. This method of removing frost is called ekevkaq. Many of the people looked forward to the delicacies from the bearded seal. The nets are checked on every tide change, when the current slackens and the waters become still. The skins of seal, sea lion, sea otter, bear, birds, squirrels, and marmots were all used for clothing items. If there is a lot of loose ice during high tide, avoid going too far out at low tide or when the blocked ice opens along the solid shoreline. To prepare for the salmon runs, Cup’ik families gather wooden poles and driftwood from the beach or riverbanks close to the Bering Sea. "We're really looking for shelter; that's the real point," Hebert said. But seal hunting remains crucial to the lives and culture of the Cup’ik people. They built the bottom of the smokehouse of sod, and the upper part of canvas. others in the community. The first man stripped himself of his qaspeq, or outer cover of parka, then set out running in a certain direction, followed by a second man taking the same route. The ulax, the basic Unangax Aleut house, is an oblong pit dwelling with wooden or whale bone frames and rafters covered by grass and sod. In the summer, families traveled first to fish camps and later to berry camps. get in winter. they are usually brought to these traditional fish sites for cutting and drying. Then, as described in Lesson II, there would be several important festivals These connections persist throughout the regions and are important in the management of the village, as well as decision-making related to everyday life. Even the seal intestines were used in soups and in seal-gut raincoats. Go on hunting trips with knowledgeable hunting companions. Hooking and jigging for these smaller fish is called manaq. Herring lay their eggs in June, before they before they are spread out on a wooden surface. of the tundra. As the harpooned seals struggled to get away, the men pulled them to the shoreline and killed them. Draw a map of hunting, fishing, camping sites used by local families. How long will the footprints on the moon last? Over the years Cup’ik hunters developed a set of rules for hunting seals in the Bering Sea—which can be calm and beautiful but which can also be treacherous for the unwary. A reconstruction of Erik the Red’s house in Iceland (Erik the Red lived about 1000 years ago). After finding the sun's direction, move to the direction of the shore. When they were going out onto sea ice, they often carried small sleds, so they could carry and pull their qayaqs across ice if they had to. the fish are done smoking, they are placed in containers with seal oil. When they had caught plenty of They put that skin and blubber in the middle of the qayaq, to balance the weight of the catch. or October, when they moved back to their permanent villages for the winter. rivers became frozen. Any views, findings, Berry camping All the frost that had built up over the winter melted, causing the whole house to become dripping wet. When the birds were on the lake, the hunters killed them and the boys gathered the dead birds. The students will be able to describe how to build a sod house. little, the heads of the fish are braided together into a string and then hung The ircinrraqs are legendary little people When the first fire died down, they set another stack of driftwood on fire. After finding a dry spot, the builders dug down three or four feet, to create the floor of the house, but left a sleeping area elevated about two feet off the floor. A house that is dug into a hill (like a cave) that is covered in Instead, they are cached in fifty-pound sacks and buried to age for As the shoreline opened slowly, the hunters got ready to throw harpoons at seals that came up for air. represent those of the National Endowment for the Humanities. and not to heat the building. men had a hunting companion, or aipaq. In the coldest months of the year, ice bulbs formed on the floor and frost on the ceiling. The Cup’ik name for the process of blackfish coming up for air is The four corners are built with strong logs that are staked to the ground. This lesson describes the Cup’ik way of life. The Elders of the village would cut the liver up to eat. Panic causes hunters to make wrong decisions. The seasons of the year have always determined the patterns of Cup’ik life. Leaders consisted of three or four Elders. trips in advance and used shortcuts whenever possible. Can you take flexeril and diclofenac together? On shallow sandbars, the ice is usually heaved up. goods and clothing and sometimes guns. Due to the wet maritime climate, it was crucial to have waterproof clothing. reach the rivers, in the kelp and seaweed along the rocky banks of bays. As the seals popped up in front of them, the hunters thrust their harpoons at stationary seals, trying to embed the harpoon tip securely in the skin and blubber. Another When families catch more than they need, they share the catch with other families that are unable to fish. ice can crush the qayaqs or boats used for seal hunting. surface; when the fish came up through the hole to gulp air, they would be caught Today the unguyaq is no longer practiced, because of the decrease in populations of different species of birds. When did organ music become associated with baseball? The Elders would then say, "The ircinrraqs It was prestigious for a man to catch a bearded seal used for this special event. However, people also walked long distances. Rendered seal oil, for example, is still used in many ways—to flavor soups and as a dip for fish, among other things. 4. also exchanged stories out on the trail. Many of our traditions and beliefs about the sea are explained in the Cup’ik Life in the Sea, that I (John Pingayak) wrote, based on information from my grandfather, Joseph Friday. Virtually the only sources of income for many families were sealskins and furs of muskrat, mink, and fox. This trade enabled them to balance their diet as well as take advantage of foreign technology.

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