Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Table 1. These are the cruciferous vegetables: the four species of Brassica (a genus in the Cruciferous family) and the other cruciferous vegetables. Brassicas are among the most commonly cultivated vegetables in the world, and some of the most nutritious vegetables you can eat. They differ only in how they have been bred, and thus are classified as different cultivars. The heads of the larger cultivars can weigh over 2 kg. Brassicas are also categorized as cruciferous vegetables (Cruciferae), or members of the cabbage family. The Brassica (Brassicaceae) family includes cruciferous vegetables like cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and mustards. It is not surprising, therefore, that glucosinolate-derived compounds have been identified as targets for functional food or nutraceutical product development. The largest cabbages in the world have, in fact, been grown near Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. Modern hybrid cultivars, however, mature more uniformly and commercial production is now mainly conducted using mechanical harvesters. The intake of brassica vegetables has been inversely associated with cancer risk at several sites with cohort studies supporting inverse associations in particular for cancers of the digestive and respiratory tract. However, the calcium is said to be unavailable due to the presence of oxalic acid, forming calcium oxalate. As late-season crops and ornamentals, Brassica spp. Thus, indole-3-carbinol derived from 3-indolylmethylglucosinolate modulates the estrogen hydroxylation pathway to produce a less potent form of estradiol and, thereby, might confer protection against estrogen-related cancer. Mustard greens are highly nutritious. ITCs and indoles, such as SFN, PEITC, and DIM, have been associated with modulation of specific mechanisms related to oxidative stress and inflammation, for which reason they are suggested to play an important role in protection against cancer and other chronic diseases.16 In addition, the modulation of phase I enzymes, being responsible for the activation of procarcinogens, and phase II enzymes, being responsible for xenobiotic and carcinogen elimination,17 as well as the activation of apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest,18 are important chemopreventive properties of ITCs. J.W. Brassica is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). We hypothesized a direct antioxidant action (e.g., exerted by carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, etc.)
), Spinach is the best vegetable source of provitamin A, providing 8100 IU equivalents per 100 g edible part, and it also contains 51 mg vitamin C and 93 mg calcium. Most are seasonal plants (annuals or biennials), but some are small shrubs. However, concentration-dependent adverse effects of many glucosinolate hydrolysis products must be considered: dose–effect relationships are not clinically proven and tissue bio-availability remains unknown. The Brassicaceae, a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants (Angiosperms), are informally known as the mustards, mustard flowers, the crucifers or the cabbage family. A dislike for cabbage or broccoli can result from the fact that these plants contain a compound similar to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), which is either bitter or tasteless to people depending on their taste buds.. (See FATTY ACIDS | Trans-fatty Acids: Health Effects. The genus Brassica is known for its important agricultural and horticultural crops and also includes a number of weeds, both of wild taxa and escapees from cultivation.
)9 (Fig.  Almost all parts of some species have been developed for food, including the root (swede, turnip), stems (kohlrabi), leaves (cabbage, collard greens, kale), flowers (cauliflower, broccoli), buds (Brussels sprouts, cabbage), and seeds (many, including mustard seed, and oil-producing rapeseed). These are defensive chemicals against microorganisms and herbivores (Cavaiuolo and Ferrante, 2014). Six particular species (B. carinata, B. juncea, B. oleracea, B. napus, B. nigra, and B. rapa) evolved by the combining of chromosomes from three earlier species, as described by the Triangle of U theory. Data on nutritional value and composition for pak choi and other oriental brassicas are summarized in Table 1. Isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane (SFN) and erucin derived from the GLS glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, respectively, mainly found in Brassica oleracea vegetables (cabbage, kale, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts, among others), have been shown to exhibit beneficial effects in disease prevention.10, 11 Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) derived from gluconasturtiin, mainly present in Lepidium sativum (garden cress), and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) derived from the GLS sinigrin, which can be found in Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra (mustard), and Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage, pak choi, and turnips), have been related to chemopreventive effects.12, 13 Indeed, preclinical evidence suggests a combination of PEITC and conventional anticancer agents to improve overall chemotherapeutic efficacy.14, On the other hand, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) is a bioactive compound derived from indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is in turn a relatively unstable hydrolysis product from indole GLS, such as glucobrassicin and its derivatives 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, methoxyglucobrassicin, and neoglucobrassicin.
Karyn L. Bischoff, in Nutraceuticals, 2016. Cultivation of the Chinensis group has been recorded in China since the fifth century. It is now in widespread production throughout the temperate regions of the world and cultivars have also been developed for use in tropical regions. Its importance is more limited outside Europe. The principal antimicrobial compounds of Allium and Brassica have been identified as allicin (S-allyl-l-propenethiosulfinate) and methyl methanethiosulfonate, respectively. These species have been cultivated for many centuries and have been extensively crossed and hybridized. Brussels sprouts are rich in vitamin A and ascorbic acid and contain appreciable amounts of riboflavin, niacin, calcium, and iron.
All common Brassica vegetables supply cancer-fighting isothiocyanates, but arugula, also known as salad rocket, is right there on top of the world's best cancer-fighting foods. Patrizia Riso, ... Stefano Vendrame, in Cancer, 2014. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans, especially those of the genus Brassica, which includes cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi,… Allium and Brassica vegetables have long been recognized for their antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Evidence exists that both isothiocyanate absorption and cancer risk could be dependent on GSTM1 genotype as reported by epidemiological and intervention studies. Brassicas are a family of vegetables, known to for their disease-fighting substances. Curly endive provides 81 mg calcium, 3300 IU equivalents of vitamin A and 10 mg vitamin C as well as moderate amounts of phosphorus, potassium, and iron per 100 g edible part. Cabbage is rich in vitamin C and high in minerals and proteins. Nitriles released from glucosinolates depress growth and cause damage to the liver and kidneys in severe cases. Other nutrients like phosphorus, iron, sodium, and potassium, are present in varying amounts in the different lettuce types. "The Names of Plants". The members of the genus are informally known as cruciferous vegetables, cabbages, or mustard plants. Processing is primarily by freezing, although a small proportion of the crop is canned. • Kale, being a rich source of vitamin C, carotenoids, and calcium, ranks high among the greens in nutritive value. Nutritional value and chemical composition of pak choia, Chinese cabbageb, and Spinach mustard.a Values are based on 100 g raw flesh. Cultivars vary in their sensitivity to vernalizing temperatures, but Brussels sprouts generally require a longer period of exposure than cabbage, ranging from around 50 to 80 days. The Chinensis group includes a number of leafy cultivars referred to as pak choi, plus other flowering types in which the developing flowering shoot is also consumed. Cultivar selection for sprout uniformity has been achieved for use in mechanical harvesting. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a breakdown product of allyl glucosinolate or sinigrin known for the pungent flavor of mustard seed, is a strong antimicrobial agent against most foodborne bacterial and fungal pathogens. The fringed-leaf endive is quite an ornamental potherb and is more popular as a salad vegetable than the broad-leaf type which is used mainly unblanched in stews and soups. Fahey, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. The members of the genus are informally known as cruciferous vegetables, cabbages, or mustard plants. Cultivars have been adapted for worldwide production, from the tropics to the Arctic Circle. Figure 4. (See MINERALS – DIETARY IMPORTANCE; NITRATES AND NITRITES.). For example, certain small villages or regions in Italy have their own very distinctive broccoli cultivars.  The following is an abbreviated list, with an emphasis on economically important species. Upon the action of the enzyme β-glucosidase (also named myrosinase), glucosinolates are hydrolyzed and the breakdown products rearrange to produce isothiocyanates or thiocyanates that are strong antimicrobial agents. There is some disagreement among botanists on the classification and status of Brassica species and subspecies. Some forms with white or purple foliage or flowerheads are also sometimes grown for ornament. Fenwick, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. The young inner leaves of mustard that are tender and mild in taste are consumed as salad. Healthy parsley leaves with their familiar agreeable flavor are an excellent source of carotenoids, vitamin C, and iodine, a good source of potassium, and a moderate source of iron, sodium, and phosphorus.
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