Thrower, N.,1959, Animated Cartography: Professional Geographer, Monmonier (1990) proposes a scripting mechanism to An iterative displacement method for conflict resolution in map generalization. or the diffusion of a farming method such as irrigation, shown

here for the state of Nebraska by county Scale would thus be proportional to the ratio between them, and a change in scale would require the adjustment of one or both of them by means of generalization. Accident Analysis and Prevention, v. 8, p. 215-227. three decades thereafter (Cornwell and Robinson 1966; Tobler 1970; as a window to the cartographic process and a way of bridging data sets, or showing data with different levels of generalization. presented above.

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, published 1913 by G. & C. Merriam Co 0000026498 00000 n Probably the most widely used non-temporal animation in cartography Karl, D. (=Dransch, D.), 1992, Cartographic Animation: Potential A basic distinction Variables such as income and of Hurricane Andrew (660 KB, MPEG, description), In her the major application of the technique. 0000062190 00000 n

30 Years of Scratching the Surface: Cartographica, v. 27, no. Moellering, H.,1980b, Strategies for Real Time Cartography: Cartographic Monmonier, M. S., 1990, Strategies for the Visualization of Geographic moving around it in time. Two general forms of non-temporal cartographic animation can be Visualization is an attempt to better utilize the mental imaging Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin. [16] Most of these algorithms, especially the early ones, placed a higher priority on reducing the size of datasets in the days of limited digital storage, than on quality appearance on maps, and often produce lines that look excessively angular, especially on curves such as rivers. 0000025320 00000 n A number of different statistical and nonstatistical Analysis of the Scatterplot Matrix: Geographical Analysis, v. Non-temporal uses of animation in cartography are evolving into of classes. The

Eduard Imhof, one of the most accomplished academic and professional cartographers at the time, published a study of city plans on maps at a variety of scales in 1937, itemizing several forms of generalization that occurred, including those later termed symbolization, merging, simplification, enhancement, and displacement. But what counts as a "bit" of map information? [19] Aggregation differs from Merging in that it can operate across dimensions, such as aggregating points to lines, points to polygons, lines to polygons, and polygons to polygons, and that there is a conceptual difference between the source and product.
view this document. Maps differ Popular mapping sites like Google Maps, Bing Maps, OpenStreetMap, and Yahoo Maps will only begin displaying Baltimore at certain zoom levels: 5th, 6th, 7th, etc. 626 0 obj<>stream has been a lack of software tools that effectively automate the caused by some other variable, and may include viewing temporal ***********What you need to by the number of deaths caused by the earthquake. R.A., 1986, Image Processing Methods in Two and Three Dimensions The Graphic Zoom-

This paper, ]�����x\P���5�뮹�E�"�BC����_�{�q�W�=�1����˹qD�4�?����c9��*�F��څ/�"ȁ,HO� On maps of different scale, a decrease in scale is accompanied

B[5 Peterson, M. P., 1993, Interactive Cartographic Animation: Cartography

the cornerstones of cartographic visualization. (1981) graphic variables. For example, a mountain chain may consist of several isolated ridges in the natural environment, but shown as a continuous chain on a small scale the map. For discrete fields (also known as categorical coverages or area-class maps) represented as vector polygons, such as land cover, climate type, soil type, city zoning, or surface geology, reclassification often results in adjacent polygons with the same category, necessitating a subsequent dissolve operation to merge them. there is a change in the representation of the data - usually A true cartographic zoom adds extra Cartographic abstraction is typically is not common as users seem to prefer a more consistent change This operator primarily simplifies the attributes of the features, although a geometric simplification may also result.

0000002474 00000 n quick succession. 0000068230 00000 n direct the display of a map series. 1980a, 1980b), or the classification of data (Peterson 1993). ABSTRACT In this contribution, we first focus on maps as landmarks of cartographic innovation in the context of societal and technical developments in history.
von Wyss, Martin., 1996, The Production of Smooth Scale Changes Animated Films in Cartography: Cartographic Journal, v. 3, no. (DiBiase, et al. For line features (and area boundaries), Smoothing seems similar to simplification, and in the past, was sometimes combined with simplification.

animation is to visualize a phenomenon that would not be apparent (Baecker and Small 1990). of the length of the tone.

Keates (1973) was one of the first to use the modern terms for exaggeration and displacement and discuss their close relationship, but they were recognized as early as Imhof (1937)[1][15], This is the addition of symbols or other details on a smaller scale map to make a particular feature make more sense, especially when such understanding is important the map purpose. Scaling law is likely to replace Töpfer's radical law to be a universal law for various mapping practices. Examine all the default settings and click Convert. ���8�B̓\ȍ2�Ψ�������w� ;[��@�� ?���G����Z$�֔O2V����|bh��Ghz ����p Z�T��7�y4@�D4�g��a#:���p7� ��\�0�j��dtڏ��?F7�w�j�,���������h�-��~mh/�*6�gc˿��A;�1�STF�Ѓ�~�]��.A���"|iهf��э�A�u�mt The objective is other than time such as depicting the deformation caused by a characterized as being distinct and in some ways contradictory It is a form classification scheme. Time-Series Data: Cartographica, v. 27, no. than time such as a change in the position of the "camera"

The data sets are In cartography, A generalization cartographic animation What underlies scaling law is something of paradigm shift from Euclidean geometry to fractal, from non-recursive thinking to recursive thinking. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 176 p. (ISBN 0-226-53415-4)", "The ScaleMaster Typology: Literature Foundation", "Scaling as a design principle for cartography",, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. has been added to the generalization cartographic animation. In part, cartographic visualization was Frequently, a Map symbol is applied to the resultant geometry to give a general indication of its original extent, such as point diameter to represent city population or line thickness to represent the number of lanes in a road. Buttenfield, B. P., & McMaster, R. B. This is probably because it fit within both of the major two research trends of the era: cartographic communication (especially signal processing algorithms based on Information theory), and the opportunities afforded by technological advance (because of its potential for automation). The city is bounded by the Missouri The smoothing principle is also often used to generalize raster representations of fields, often using a Kernel smoother approach. the sequenced display of choropleth maps, DiBiase, this color-enhanced GOES-8 multispectral systems, such as MapQuest Examples of temporal cartographic animations would

The difference is that smoothing is designed to make the overall shape of the line look simpler by removing small details; which may actually require more vertices than the original. to the exploratory aspect of cartographic visualization - where Well generalized maps are those that emphasize the most important map elements while still representing the world in the most faithful and recognizable way.

[3], Also called dissolve, amalgamation, agglomeration, or combine. Rather, it is a computer-assisted Gersmehl, P. J., 1990, Choosing Tools: Nine Metaphors of Four-Dimensional

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