End Your Hunger and Food Cravings, Best Tips for a Flat Stomach: Tummy Tuck Alternatives, To Stay Youthful: Minimize Metabolic Waste. As a result, the pharmacological/toxicological evaluation of 5‐CQA has become increasingly important.
Currently, obesity is considered as the major cause of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, 5‐CQA is considered to be a novel euglycemic agent, which exerts its antidiabetic effects by stimulating glucose uptake in both insulin‐resistant and insulin‐sensitive adipocytes. The primary dietary sources of chlorogenic acid are coffee and tea, whether regular or decaffeinated. The evaluation of the therapeutic effects of 5‐CQA on obesity and obesity‐induced insulin resistance and liver steatosis in a high‐fat diet (HFD) mouse model revealed that 5‐CQA significantly prevented the progress of HFD‐induced obesity without influencing body weight (Ma, Gao, & Liu, 2015). Additionally, a recent in vitro study indicated that 5‐CQA could be beneficial to host health by significantly inducing the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. MPO, myeloperoxidase; PMNs, polymorphonuclear neutrophils; BALF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; iNOS, inducible NO synthase; TG, triacylglycerol; PPARA, peroxisome proliferation‐activated receptor alpha; G‐6‐Pase, glucose‐6‐phosphatase; AMPK, 5′‐adenosine monophosphate‐activated protein kinase; SLC2A4, solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; GIP, glucose‐dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. 600-1,500mg for a 20% chlorogenic acid supplement. The identified metabolites reflect the complex and extensive metabolism of 5‐CQA upon absorption (Williamson & Stalmach, 2012). On the other hand, several clinical studies revealed that nearly one‐third of the 5‐CQA intake was absorbed in the small intestine and entered the bloodstream, while the rest of the 5‐CQA reached the large intestine without being altered, and was then reabsorbed after being hydrolyzed and metabolized by the colonic microbiota and gastric esterase (ET) (Farah & de Paula Lima, 2019; Olthof et al., 2001; Stalmach et al., 2010; Tomas‐Barberan et al., 2014; Williamson & Stalmach, 2012). The association of 5‐CQA with CVDs has been investigated in several studies such as antihypertensive effects (Zhao et al., 2012), stroke (Mikami & Yamazawa, 2015), thrombotic disease (Fuentes, Caballero, Alarcón, Rojas, & Palomo, 2014), atherosclerosis (Tsai et al., 2018), hyperglycemia (Meng et al., 2013; Roshan et al., 2018), and hyperlipidemia (Roshan et al., 2018). Later, another study showed that microporous resins can be used to enrich and purify 5‐CQA from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Sun et al., 2015). 240-600mg for a 50% chlorogenic acid supplement. Thus, 5‐CQA may be a suitable natural compound for the treatment and/or prevention of gastrointestinal tract lesions caused by various etiologies and pathogenesis. However, the ex vivo biotransformation of 5‐CQA can differ from that in vivo, which raises the question of whether the 5‐CQA and its metabolites are safe for therapeutic use. Collectively, numerous studies have demonstrated that 5‐CQA is a natural health‐beneficial compound, although there are large interindividual variations in its utilization, metabolism, and excretion in both basic and clinical studies. Huijie Lu wrote and provided the manuscript, constructed of the figures and schemes. In weaned rats, 5‐CQA attenuated LPS‐mediated intestinal barrier dysfunction by increasing tight junction protein 1 (TJP1; also known as ZO‐1) and occludin (OCLN) (Ruan et al., 2014). (2010) found that 5‐CQA reduced neutrophil infiltration and hepatocyte necrosis by suppressing Tnf, Tlr4, and transcription factor p65 (Rela, also known as Nfkb3/NF‐κB p65) mRNA expression and restoring the expression of Ppargc1a mRNA in LPS‐induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice. Another recent study suggested that 5‐CQA supplementation can reduce intestinal permeability and partly mitigate colonic epithelial barrier injury by inhibiting the myosin light chain kinase (MYLK, also known as MLCK) pathway and modulating the dynamic distribution and localization of TJPs in colitis rats (Ruan et al., 2016).
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