Doninger GL, Enders CK, Burnett KF.

Sometimes, [8] The EAT has low positive predictive value because of denial and social desirability, as well as the possible confounding role of co-morbid factors.[8]. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Factor Structure Assessment using ESEM and CFA in Sample 2 (Step 3): ESEM analyses with three, four, and five correlated factors were re-run in Sample 2. In: Contemporary psychometrics a Festschrift for Roderick P McDonald. Those who reported being overweight or obese had generally higher mean scores across Fear-of-Getting-Fat, Eating-Related-Control, and Food-Preoccupation subscales than those in the normal and underweight categories.

Measurement Invariance in the Entire Sample: The results supported metric invariance only for language based on the change criteria in fit statistics specified a priori (Table 6): Model 2 vs. Model 1 [∆CFI = − 0.001, ∆TLI = + 0.003, and ∆RMSEA = − 0.001]. Questionnaire, Survey Mode and Administration: The EAT-26 was programmed and administered in a panel study as part of a thirty-minute online questionnaire in Qualtrics [36].
Media Influence on the Body Image Among Students in UAE. The subscales based on the factor analysis were scored as the sum of the items constituting the subscales. Like all questionnaires, the way the instrument is administered can have an effect on the final score. The Eating Attitudes Test-40 (EAT-40; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) is one of the most widely used measures in the field of eating disorders (ED).The factor structure of the EAT-40, as well as the optimal cut-off score to identify subjects with ED, are subjects of debate. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2005. p. 275–340. This could be due to several reasons including variability in the magnitude of correlations between the latent factors across BMI categories, other psychometric properties of the EAT, and the self-report nature of our assessment method.  |  Differences in factor structure between English and non-English speaking countries have been largely attributed to cultural differences in eating attitudes and body-figure norms [31,32,33]. Usually, 2007;40(5):399–408. Salma M. Khaled. Szabo CP, Allwood CW. Always, J Eat Disord 6, 14 (2018). Translation: Since there is no standard, authorized Arabic translation, the EAT-26 was translated from English to Arabic by the first author and back translated to English by another member of the research team. Other nationalities included Egypt (5.2%), Yemen (5.0%), Palestine (4.1%), Jordan (3.8%), other Gulf countries (4.3%), other Arab countries (6.6%), Pakistan/India/Bangladesh (2.6%), Iran (2.0%), Europe/North-America (0.5%), and other Asian/Euro-Asian/African countries (1.8%). The EAT-26 is a refinement of the original EAT-40 that was first published in 1979, following the low factorial loadings of 14 items which were subsequently …
[cited 10 Jan 2017] Available from: Finally, measurement invariance tests were conducted in the entire sample assessing equivalence across language and BMI within the final five-factor model. Clinical participants displayed higher mean scores than normal subjects in the EAT-40. By using this website, you agree to our In addition, separate population-based norms for the EAT score should be established for different BMI-categories and for Arabic-speaking populations. Multi-group Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFAs) were conducted at this stage and their fit was evaluated with and without further sub-grouping by language (Arabic and English) and BMI (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese). Ball K, Kenardy J. While our sample had a good representation of female students from all over the Arab world, it is unclear whether our findings would generalize to males, females of different ages, or Arab females of lower educational status. Article  The Social and Economic Survey Research Institute at Qatar University made this study possible. In the Middle East, although the EAT-26 has been widely used in Arabic-speaking countries [6, 7, 27, 28], fewer studies reported on its psychometric properties [29, 30]. 2007;14(3):464–504. PubMed Google Scholar. Musaiger AO, Al-Mannai M, Tayyem R, Al-Lalla O, Ali EYA, Kalam F, et al. Dotti A, Fioravanti M, Balotta M, Tozzi F, Cannella C, Lazzari R. Eat Weight Disord.

Stata Statistical Software: Release 13 [Internet]. Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test: A study of Mexican eating disorders patients, The Eating Attitudes Test: Validation With DSM-IV Eating Disorder Criteria. EFs of value less than 0.20 were considered very small or negligible even if statistically significant at alpha of 0.05. A second limitation is our reliance on self-reported weight and height for BMI. Mean SD Restraint Subscale 1.251 1.323 Eating Concern Subscale 0.624 0.859 Shape Concern Subscale 2.149 1.602 Weight Concern Subscale 1.587 1.369 Global Score (4 Subscales) 1.554 1.213 Assessment of Eating Disorders: Interview or Self-Report Questionnaire? The resulting five-factor structure was similar to the six-factor structure reported in one of the largest factorial validation studies conducted to date on this topic using ethnically diverse French adolescents by Maïano et al. With the exception of the correlations between Fear-of -Getting-Fat and Eating-Related-Control (r = 0.662) and Fear-of-Getting-Fat and Food-Preoccupation (r = 0.571), most factors had small or minimal correlations (seven of the remaining eight r ≤ 0.35) (Table 4). Further conceptual validation of the Arabic translation was obtained through cognitive interviews with 20 female university students. 2013;60(1):162–7. [7], There are some general concerns with the EAT-26. Both controversial issues are addressed in the present study.

Correspondence to

Part of [4] The items were reduced after a factor analysis on the original 40-item data set revealed there to be only 26 independent items. To check the internal consistency in the subscales, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were computed for Sample 1, Sample 2, and for the entire sample. Additionally, as it occurs with self-report measures generally, high scores on the EAT is typically influenced by a person's attitude. Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA. CFAs supported metric invariance for language and for BMI. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT, EAT-26), created by David Garner, is a widely used self-report questionnaire 26-item standardized self-report measure of symptoms and concerns characteristic of eating disorders. Washington DC: American Psychological Association (APA); 1995. p. 99–136. Both controversial issues are addressed in the present study. patients, on the other.

Factor Structure Assessment using ESEM in Sample 1: Three-, four- and five-factor ESEM models were run on the 19 items (Table 2). Int J Eat Disord. Springer Nature.

Maiano C, Morin AJS, Lanfranchi M-C, Therme P. The eating attitudes Test-26 revisited using exploratory structural equation modeling. This may account for discrepancies in the factor structure of the EAT-26 across studies [35]. Based on findings from Sample 1, we conducted ESEM and a series of CFA within the Structural Equation Modelling framework in the replication sample (Sample 2).

1) suggests factors beyond the first six account for little variability in the 26 items, thus the factor structure was fixed to a maximum of six factors in a second EFA (Table 1). Garner et al., (1982) proposed a three-factor model based on a principal component analysis (PCA): a dieting-factor related to avoidance of fattening foods and pre-occupation with being thinner, a bulimia- and food pre-occupation-related factor, and an oral control factor [10]. While, all these items loaded satisfactorily on a sixth factor, Eating-Related-Guilt factor in the other study, this was not the case for these items in our study. In series of studies, Maïano and colleagues (2013) conducted a thorough investigation of the factor structure of the EAT-26 in one of the largest samples (n = 1779) of ethnically diverse, Europeans and Africans, populations to date. Asparouhov T, Muthén B. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling. Nasser M. Screening for abnormal eating attitudes in a population of Egyptian secondary school girls. Problems and solutions in human assessment. 2010;54(3):595–8. 1982;12(4):871–8., DOI: 1992;11(3):243–51. Risk factors for binge eating disorder: a community-based, case-control study. 2004;3(1):41–4. Garner, M.P. Weight status was measured using BMI (Kg/m2) based on self-reported weight and height and categorized into three groups: underweight (< 18.5), normal weight (18.5 to 24.9), and overweight or obese (25.0 or more) [37]. 9 Psychological Medicine 273-279. In this study, we examined psychometric and validity data for a short version of the scale, the EAT-26.

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