Because the emperor was not so strong-minded, Franz Joseph’s mother decided to bring up his son as the future leader and emperor, with the main focus on diligence, devotion, and responsibility. He began his reign with an effort to replace constitutionalism with absolute centralism, or neoabsolutism, and continued to bring changes in his domestic and foreign policies. Franz Joseph died on November 16, 1916, in Schonbrunn Palace from pneumonia. However, it did not take place. The defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 led to the signing of the ‘Austro-Hungarian Compromise’ of 1867. An ultimatum of certain demands to be fulfilled was sent to Serbia by Austria, which Serbia failed to comply with. The imperial family moved back to Vienna after the situation went back to normal and after the Italians were defeated in Custoza. In later years, Franz Joseph characterized his policy of yielding territory with one hand while fighting for it with the other as honest but stupid, whereas the chancellor Friedrich Ferdinand, Graf (count) von Beust, called the agreement the most shocking document that he had ever seen. Rudolf, the heir apparent, shot himself in a suicide love pact in 1889. The king of Prussia failed to show up at the congress of princes in Frankfurt in 1863, which proved that he did not consider Austria as the strongest German power anymore. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. Moreover, the prime minister of Sardinia, Camillo Benso, included the French forces in his army to drive Austria out of Italy. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Army expenditures had to be curtailed in 1859, when a series of ill-fated wars began that seriously shook Austria’s military reputation. Unfortunately, the 1859 wars against the Kingdom of Sardinia and France added to the loss of a big chunk of the state treasury. Libény was eventually tried and hanged for attempted regicide. During that time, his family moved to Innsbruck, in Tyol, because of the revolution in Vienna. Thus, the young duke was raised to be a responsible monarch. Austria faced several setbacks, including the dissolution of its alliance with Russia and the loss of the Second Italian War of Independence of 1859. He concluded the ‘Peace of Villafranca,’ which ceded Lombardy to Sardinia. In 1914 his ultimatum to Serbia led Austria and Germany into World War I. Franz Joseph was the eldest son of Archduke Francis Charles and Sophia, daughter of Maximilian I of Bavaria. The result was an impending war with Prussia. Unreconciled to this settlement, Franz Joseph adopted a foreign policy that prepared the way for a passage at arms with Italy and Prussia, by which he hoped to regain for Austria its former position in Germany and Italy, as it had been established by Metternich in 1814–15. On February 18, 1853, Franz was stabbed in the neck by Hungarian nationalist János Libény. He was also faced with renewed fighting in Italy. Beust’s cherished project of an Austrian-French-Italian alliance against Prussia did not materialize, however, and in 1870 the attitude of the Hungarian prime minister, Gyula, Gróf (count) Andrássy, coupled with the rapid military successes of Prussia, prevented Austria from joining in the Franco-German War at the side of France. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. This gave rise to a contest between Austria and Prussia, which Prussia won after winning the Seven Weeks War. When revolution spread to the capitals of the Austrian Empire, Franz Joseph was proclaimed emperor at Olmütz (Olomouc) on December 2, 1848, after the abdication of Ferdinand—the rights of his father, the archduke, to the throne having been passed over. Also Known As: Franz Joseph I, Francis Joseph I, Spouse/Ex-: Empress Elisabeth of Austria (m. 1854–1898), siblings: Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria, Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria, Maximilian I of Mexico, children: Archduchess Gisela of Austria, Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria, Archduchess Sophie of Austria, Crown Prince of Austria, Rudolf, place of death: Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, See the events in life of Franz Joseph I Of Austria in Chronological Order. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. A period of experiments—alternating between federalistic and centralistic charters—kept the country in a permanent state of crisis until 1867. In 1879 he formed an alliance with Prussian-led Germany. In June 1848, he joined his family in Innsbruck where he first met Elisabeth, who later became his wife. Franz Joseph, portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1865. He ruled over the kingdoms from 1848 to 1916, until his death. He also received baptism by fire while in Italy and took up his responsibility really well. However, his on-going war with Hungary soon went out of control. Since childhood, Franz was expected to become an able ruler, since his father was not too ambitious and his uncle was mentally weak. After a while, the family had to leave Vienna again, for Olomouc. Franz Joseph was emperor for 68 years. They had four children: Sophie, Gisela, Rudolf, and Marie Valerie. After a week of delivery of the letter, on July 28, Austria–Hungary declared war against Serbia. In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne and Franz succeeded him as the new Emperor of Austria. He was also the third-longest-reigning ruler in the history of Europe, after Louis XIV of France and Johann II of Liechtenstein. In spite of this, Joseph was always respected as the uncrowned king of Bohemia. On December 2, 1848, Franz was crowned as the new emperor of Austria, in Olomouc. Hopes of a revival of monarchist sentiments were raised by his radiant, youthful appearance. Hungarian domination eventually turned Serbia, inhabited by fellow Slavs, into the Dual Monarchy’s mortal enemy, leading to World War I. Franz Joseph was the eldest son of Archduke Francis Charles and Sophia, daughter of King Maximilian I of Bavaria. As a new emperor and with the help of Prime Minister Prince Schwarzenberg, Franz Joseph was able to grant a new constitution in 1849. Although Franz loved his wife, Elisabeth did not feel the same. Because the emperor was not so strong-minded, Franz Joseph’s mother decided to bring up his son as the future leader and emperor, with the main focus on diligence, devotion, and responsibility… Yet the absence of the Prussian king demonstrated that Prussia no longer regarded Austria as the leading German power. The Hungarian compromise and the dual monarchy, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Franz-Joseph, FirstWorldWar.com - Biography of Emperor Franz Josef I, GlobalSecurity.org - Biography of Francis Joseph, Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine - Biography of Francis Joseph I, The world of the Habsburgs - Biography of Franz Joseph I, 1914-1918 Online - International Encyclopedia of the First World War - Biography of Francis Joseph I, Francis Joseph I - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Leo, Graf (count) von Thun und Hohenstein, Friedrich Ferdinand, Graf (count) von Beust, Rudolf, Archduke and crown prince of Austria. Thus, one group favored a “Greater Germany” that included Austria and another group favored a “Lesser Germany” without Austria. He was the uncrowned king of Bohemia during his reign. Thus, Franz himself took over the role of the prime minister. The congress of princes at Frankfurt in 1863, for which the reigning heads of all German states assembled with the sole exception of the king of Prussia, was a high point in Franz Joseph’s life. In home affairs, however, Schwarzenberg’s harsh rule and the formation of an intolerant police apparatus evoked a latent mood of rebellion. After the ‘Austro-Hungarian Compromise,’ the introduction of dual monarchy left the Czech people without the recognition of Bohemian state rights. He died on November 21, 1916, after reigning for 68 long years. Updates? The mood of crisis after the defeat of 1859 caused Franz Joseph to pay renewed attention to the constitutional question. In 1853 there was an attempt on the emperor’s life in Vienna and in a riot in Milan. This made him request Tsar Nicholas I of Russia to intervene. Instead, he joined a military campaign in Italy. Franz Joseph I was born on August 18, 1830, in Vienna’s Schonbrunn Palace. Franz himself led his army as the commander-in-chief but could not prevent Solferino’s defeat. Between 1859 and 1860, financial crisis made the Austrian government cut down on its expenses for the army. Austria’s mistaken policy during the Crimean War originated largely with the emperor, torn between gratitude to Russia for its help in quelling a rebellion in Hungary in 1849 and the advantage the monarchy might derive from siding with Great Britain and France. He was also the third-longest-reigning ruler in the history of Europe, after Louis XIV of France and Johann II of Liechtenstein. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Joseph_I_of_Austria, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Franz_Joseph_1898.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Franz_Joseph_of_Austria_1910_old.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Franz_Joseph_I_of_Austria.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Franz_Joseph_of_Bohemia_1861.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:L%C3%A1szl%C3%B3_Portrait_of_Franz_Joseph_I_1899.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Franz_Joseph_1865.jpg. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.

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