Timing overlap came out at 40 degrees. However, the Vulture engine proved to be a failure, and the Manchester was produced only in small numbers. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The Merlin, was water cooled [30% Glycol], using wet-liner technology. The majority of aircraft built, [95%] used the Rolls-Royce Merlin, 60 degree, V12, petrol engine. Nevertheless, the Lancaster was far and away the most effective British heavy bomber of World War II, being far superior to its main competitor, the Halifax, in tons of bombs dropped per man-hour expended in production and maintenance. After the war, Lancasters served as patrol bombers well into the 1950s, and a civilian airliner version, the Lancastrian, was produced in small numbers. It could reach a maximum speed of 280 miles (450 km) per hour and a ceiling of 24,500 feet (7,500 metres), and it could carry a 14,000-pound (6,350-kg) bomb load to a range of 1,660 miles (2,670 km) at 200 miles (320 km) per hour. With a cylinder bore of 5.4″ and a stroke of 6″, the cubic capacity came out at 1650 cu inches, or approximately 27 litres. https://www.britannica.com/technology/Lancaster-airplane, The Aviation History On-line Museum - Avro Lancaster. Serious design of the Merlin, started around 1933. The resultant aircraft, the Manchester, first flew in July 1939, entered production the following year, and was committed to combat in February 1941. Most Lancasters were armed with a powered tail turret mounting four 0.303-inch (7.7-mm) machine guns, a powered twin-0.303 turret on the upper rear fuselage, and a pair of 0.303s in the nose; a few had twin-0.303 belly turrets. Avro then proposed a redesigned Manchester powered by four Rolls-Royce Merlin engines, and the result was the Lancaster. It was operated by a basic crew of seven, including the pilot, copilot, bombardier, navigator, radioman, and gunners. At the rear of the engine sat the centrifugal supercharger. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Another was the sinking on November 12, 1944, of the German battleship Tirpitz in the remote Kaa fjord of Norway by 31 Lancasters dropping 12,000-pound (5,400-kg) “Tallboy” bombs. The Merlin, was water cooled [30% Glycol], using wet-liner technology. [Nearly 17 times bigger than a 1.6 litre Ford Focus!]. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Mk.II. Lancaster is the county town for Lancashire and the name of the aircraft derives from here. Lancasters powered by Bristol Hercules air-cooled radial engines also were produced as a result of shortages of Merlin engines, but these proved to be less capable than Merlin-powered versions. The engine was a veritable mass of gears. With regard to cruising speed and take off run, these figures were slightly better. Avro Lancaster NX611 'Just Jane' Engine Start. The Lancaster’s more-spectacular exploits included successful attacks on the Möhne, Sorpe, and Eder hydroelectric dams in Germany on the night of May 17, 1943, using special spinning bombs that were designed to skip across the water when released at low altitude, hug the face of the dam as they sank, and then be detonated at the proper depth by a hydrostatic fuse. Updates? The carburettor was mounted at the rear, on the bottom of the supercharger, [updraft]. Its flying days started in 1935, giving a good span of development time before being required in volume for Aircraft to defend our Nation, during 1939-45. Mk.I. Roe and Company. Omissions? By the spring of 1944, radar-equipped Lancasters were capable of bombing at night with considerable accuracy, particularly when attacking targets close enough to Britain to be guided by the radio bombing aids. The Bristol Hercules Mk VI & XVI, was used in some 300 Avro Lancaster Mk II’s, reaching Squadron service. Aircraft of Bomber Command The Lancaster Bomber Avro Lancaster - Specifications. Over 100,000 of the total, were built in Britain. The coloured drawing, shows the lubrication path. Four Rolls-Royce Merlin XX or 22, 12 cylinder 60 degrees vee-type liquid cooled engines with two stage supercharger.

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