Scheme 21. The addition of 0.1% BHT or α-tocopherol demonstrates great efficiency.
Alternate deprotonations of the former generate α-pinene (12) and β-pinene (13), whereas diphosphate or water capture leads to bornyl diphosphate (BPP (18)) and borneol (19), respectively. The problem resolved after discontinuing the after-shave and use of topical steroids (De Groot & Liem 1983). These, and other results from testing on dermatitis patients, are shown in Table 14.6A. 3.3) showed linalool production was detectable over the 3- to 14-day postinfiltration sampling period with the highest levels occurring at 5-day postinfiltration (0.46 μg gFW− 1 h− 1). It possesses enzyme inducing and sedative properties.
Postinfiltration solvent extraction of detached leaves was carried out at different intervals over a 14-day period and volatiles analyzed by GC–MS (A–E). Scheme 24. Patch testing with 5% linalool elicited no reactions in 99 patients with non-cosmetic dermatitis, nor in 60 patients with cosmetic dermatitis (Itoh et al 1986, 1988). The essential oil of Hyptis fruticosa was hypotensive in normotensive rats at 5–40 mg/kg iv, and caused concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine-stimulated isolated rat superior mesenteric artery at 1–1000 μg/mL (Santos et al 2007). Subacute and subchronic toxicity: Linalool was administered once daily for 13 weeks to the shaved backs of male and female rats in doses of 0.25, 1.0 or 4.0 g/kg. A 1,2- or a 1,3-hydride shift (delocalization of charge on the latter secondary allylic cation leads to the more stable tertiary cation) and subsequent deprotonations produce α- and γ-terpinene (9 and 38, respectively) and α- and β-phellandrene (37 and 8, respectively). Semiquantitative solvent extraction GC–MS analysis of linalool production in N. benthamiana leaves expressing ApLS1. While this is consistent with the clinical data, it does not correlate well with the EU guideline of 0.01% in wash-off products and 0.001% in leave-on products.
-, Phytomedicine. Thyme at very bottom of mountain: oil contains significant amount of phenol. Several products containing citrus oils are marketed to control ticks, fleas, and other insects. Of 119 patients with contact allergy to cosmetics products 1 (0.9%) reacted to 10% linalool (De Groot et al 1988). ), rose (Rosa spp. Although it can be oxidized, and oxidized linalool can be sensitizing, we do not know how readily linalool oxidizes in essential oil mixtures, fragrances or personal care products, especially those containing antioxidants. The linalool present in each sample was quantified by measuring its m/z 93 peak against the equivalent peak of an external authentic linalool standard. The experimental data for the solvent extraction analysis show that linalool production in N. benthamiana leaves expressing ApLS1 was detectable over the 5- to 14-day postinfiltration sampling period (Fig. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. These products include insect sprays, pet dips, shampoos, and soaps. Additive antimicrobial [corrected] effects of the active components of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris--chemotype carvacrol. Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors. Carcinogenic/anticarcinogenic potential: A single application of DMBA in 0.2 mL acetone was made to the clipped skin of albino mice. The Paraguayan oil may be adulterated with a mixture of linalyl acetate, α-terpineol, geranyl acetate, neryl acetate and trace amounts of pyrazines (Burfield 2003). Postinfiltration solvent extraction of detached leaves was carried out at different intervals over a 14-day period and volatiles analyzed by GC–MS (A–E). They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Monoterpenols, e.g. Semiquantitative GS–MS analysis (Fig. Carcinogenic/anticarcinogenic potential: A single application of DMBA in 0.2 mL acetone was made to the clipped skin of albino mice. ORGANIC THYME LINALOOL Thymus vulgaris L. linaloliferum Botanical The genus Thymus has more than 150 species distributed in Europe. Linalool has antioxidant properties (Celik & Ozkaya 2002). Following the challenge phase, there were also no sensitization reactions (Lapczynski et al 2008g). Linalool is not carcinogenic, and demonstrates broad spectrum anticancer activity in cell lines. Wagner–Meerwein (W–M) rearrangements of the bornyl cation (40) (6,2-rearrangement) and pinyl cation (39) (3,1-rearrangement) lead to the isocamphyl (42) and fenchyl (41) cations, respectively.
One of the pathways appeared to be initiated by specific oxygenation of C-8 methyl group of linalool (63), leading to the formation of 8-hydroxylinalool (64), which was further oxidized to linalool-8-carboxylic acid (65). Pharmacokinetics: Following an intragastric dose of 500 mg/kg of linalool in rats, 96% was excreted within 72 hours following rapid absorption from the stomach. J Pharm Pharmacol. Reproductive toxicity: Linalool was administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 250, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg/day, on gestational days 7–17. These facts showed that G. cingulata recognized the absolute configuration of the secondary hydroxyl group at C-3. Sensitization was thought to be due to previous exposure to lavender, jasmine and rosewood (Schaller & Korting 1995). Two possibilities were proposed: (1) water elimination giving rise to a monocyclic cation (79), yielding α-terpineol (80), which upon oxidation gave oleuropeic acid (76); (2) oxidation of the C-10 methyl group of linalool (63 and 63′) before cyclization, giving rise to oleuropeic acid (76). Other essential oil constituents with hypotensive actions caused by direct vasodilation include, in order of decreasing potency, linalool, citronellol, nerol, geraniol, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole. Additionally, our findings show that, despite solvent extraction having the required sensitivity for mono-TPS transient expression analysis, it has the disadvantage of producing samples with more contaminants (presumably derived from leaf waxes and pigments) than headspace sampling. In a modified Draize procedure on guinea pigs, linalool was not sensitizing when used at 10% in the challenge phase (Sharp 1978). Yoshiaki Noma, Yoshinori Asakawa, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010, (+)-Linalool (63, (S)-3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadiene-3-ol) and its enantiomer (63′, (R)-3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadiene-3-ol) occur in many essential oils, where it is often the main component.
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