They keep themselves engaged in hunting, fishing and cultivation for their livelihood. Social Structure of Paharia Tribe The work affair of the Santhal revolve around the forests in which they reside. Nzanmongi Jasmine Patton’s A Girl Swallowed By A Tree is a collection of 30 folk tales from the Lotha tribe of Nagaland. Sauria Paharias have taken up minor Government jobs. Their livelihood depends on cattle farming and dairy. They are believed to be the early indigenous settlers of Assam. They also celebrate hunting festival know as Dishum Sendra on the eve of Baisakhi Purnima. The Santhals do not posses a sophisticated and advanced civilization and are not bound to follow any fixed occupation. The Santhal tribes are still found in few regions of eastern India they are West Bengal, Orissa and Jharkhand. They are known for their art and cuisine. Santhal’s proved to be the great fighters during the British regime in India. The steamed meat dumplings called momos are their staple food. They are well known in the region for their skills in witchcraft and magic. Their main concentration is in Damin-i-Koh where about two third of their population stays. During religious sacrifices women are not allowed except in the times when these sacrifices are held at the houses of family gods or ancestors. Fairs also organized during Rath, karma and others festival. The majority of them are Christians while others follow Hinduism and Islamism. Dialects of Pakur District They follow the Sarna religion owing allegiance to a God called Singbonga. They speak a language with Telugu accent and are a very ritualistic lot. The Santhal is a distinct culture on their own as the people delightfully enjoys dancing, that keeps them happy. The tribe is best known for the famed Hornbill Festival which attracts crowds from various parts of the world. In 1850, Sidhu the Santhal hero singlehandedly accumulated around ten thousand Santhals to rule parallel government against the British government. Mardi is a Santhal from the state that houses the largest percentage of this category of Adivasis, or Scheduled Tribes, as the Constitution calls them. Agriculture is their main occupation. SANTHAL’S WAY OF CELEBRATION : FESTIVAL Ministry of Tribal Affairs plans and co-ordinates the development programs for the tribes, List of Hottest and Coldest Planets in the Solar System, Worksheets for UKG | Maths | English | EVS | Hindi – Free Download, 25 Best Educational Podcasts You Need to Listen To, Copyright © 2020, Edsys Pvt Ltd. All Rights Reserved | Digital Marketing by JointViews | Privacy Policy, List of Presidents and Vice Presidents of India. They speak different dialects like Gnamei, Ngami, Tsoghami. Santhal’s proved to be the great fighters during the British regime in India. The tribe is one of the few matrilineal societies in the world. The fact that tribal people need special attention can be observed from their low social, economic and participatory indicators. History of Santhal Rebellion. Females wear panchi (upper garment) and Parhan (lower garment) whereas Bhagwan is worn by men traditionally. The festival of Wangala is their celebration. Mainly four languages are spoken by the people belonging to this district namely Malt, Bengali, Hindustani and Santhali. The Santhal tribes are a major tribe of West Bengal. Divorce is also a known concept in tribal communities. Their main occupation was farming. The Soligas speak the Sholaga language, which has Kannada and Tamil influence. Their life is simple and basic. They are of Tibetan ancestry and speak Lhopo or Sikkimese language. They are known to be the first inhabitants of the island. Education is widely spread among the people of the tribe but they lag behind in terms of higher education. SANTHAL TRIBE: HISTORY The Bhils are the largest tribes in India. In addition to the traditional festivals of Kailpodhu, Puttari and Kaveri Sankraman, they celebrate the Kodava Hockey festival every year. They are fond of ritual practices, dance and music. This style of living has also introduced modern political system. In the old times, this caste, which lived in West Bengal and Bihar, lived on their own. SANTHAL’S LINE OF WORK : OCCUPATION Their major festival, the Nongkrem festival is five days long when the women wear a dress called Jainsem and the men a Jymphong. They are adept at formulating traditional herbal medicines. They celebrate the Baishagu festival in spring, dedicated to Lord Shiva. Found in the Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh and in parts of Maharashtra, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, the Gonds are the second biggest tribe in India. Delhi, Pondicherry, Haryana, Chandigarh and Punjab are states where there are no tribes. A mixed culture can be witnessed in Pakur district owing to the presence of people belonging to different cultures, heritages and languages. Marriage system among the tribal people is guided by their typical customs and rituals. They speak the Bo, Khora, Jeru and Sare languages. They are also present in the districts of Kurnool, Nalgonda, Guntur. Their skill in architecture is reflected in the oval and tent-shaped bamboo houses with thatched roofs. A bantam bunch comprising of the Santhals can also be traced back to Bangladesh. Thukpa, noodles in a broth, is another of their dishes. The Bhutias are mainly found in Sikkim and parts of West Bengal and Tripura. The practices of different religions combine to form a unique Culture of Pakur District. Other occupations of this tribe are fishing, hunting and food gathering. Due to presence of industries and mining activities Viskarma Puja is also one of the important festival. The women wear Mechala and ornaments of beads, mask pendants, bracelets, etc. The Santhal tribe obtains some unique kinds of instrument such as Tirio made with bamboo flute with the seven holes, an Open chest known as korom, Phet Banam made of fret less stringed instrument with three or four strings. – Jane Howard Santhals acquire skills in making the musical equipment’s, mats and baskets out of the plants. For Santhals, marriage is a social necessity and these people get their children married at a small age. These people used to cultivate the forest land by making it arable. The third largest tribes of India are the Santhal Tribe. They speak a Tibetan-Burmese language, the Bodo. They hunt and trade in jungle products like honey, roots, gums, fruits, and tubers. The main occupation of Pahariyas is cultivation where they practice slash and burn cultivation methods. The tribe inhabits areas of the Nilgiri mountain in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Tribal folks have peculiar attires. Apart from this, they also gather forest products for their survival. The largest number of tribes in India is in Madhya Pradesh followed by Bihar. Call it a clan , call it a network, call it a tribe, call it a family, whatever you call it, whoever you are, you need one Losar and Loosong are the festivals celebrated. They lead a simplistic lifestyle depending on agriculture and gathering of honey and wax. TRIBES OF INDIA Tribals constitute 8.61% of the total population of the country, numbering 104.28 million (2011 Census) and cover about 15% of the country’s area. This tribe is found in Jharkhand and parts of Chattisgarh, Bihar, Odisha and West Bengal. Paharias and Santhals have always shared a hostile relationship and to control their aggression a number of ex-army men settled in this area. This is a major tribe found in parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A good majority of them have converted to Christianity. This tribe of Karnataka is believed to have descended from the Bantu people of Southeast Africa. Toda embroidery work, Pukhoor, is well acclaimed. They belief that dancing gives relaxation to the minds after working a long tiring day. It is uniform in nature and is slightly influenced by Aryan languages. The weaving of handloom products is an intrinsic part of their culture. Santhal women dress up themselves in the red bordered white sari and dance in the line sequence. Santhals and Paharias are the main inhabitants of Pakur District. Traditional leadership and close knit communities are the most prominent features of this community. Paharias are the oldest inhabitants of this region. They depend on agriculture and livestock for their living and are great hunters. The life of these people mainly depends on different agricultural activities including their philosophy, thinking, rituals and practices. Gathering forest products are the second most important occupation of Santhals. They conduct the Tarpa dance during the harvest season and the Warli Folk Art Dancing People Festival during March of every year. Their main source of livelihood is the sale of Raggi, honey, wild turmeric, algae, bamboo, etc harvested by them. They have houses of mud walls and thatched roofs in the Gondi forests. They keep to themselves and refrain from interacting with outsiders. Garo architecture is quite unique. The British brought Santhals to this area for combating the violent opposition of Paharias. This tribe is mainly spotted on the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya and in parts of Assam, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, and West Bengal. Mal nutrition, diseases and gambling have cast a devastating impact on this tribe. The men wear their traditional dress with a turban with feathers stuck in them. However, with the impact of modern lifestyle Santhal women have acquired new identity in the fields of education, science, art and culture, games and sports etc. They speak the Mundari language. The first leader of the Santhal that raised weapons against the Britishers in 1789 was Baba Tilka Majhi. Adult marriages occur only in exceptional cases. Other occupations of this tribe are fishing, hunting and food gathering. This indigenous group is comprised of five different groups namely Male Soliga, Kadu, Burude, Pujari, Urali Soliga. Garo tribes are mainly found in the hills of Meghalaya and parts of Assam, Nagaland and West Bengal. Totapara village in Alipurdoar district of West Bengal is home to the Toto tribe. Tribes of India - Gond, Santhal, Munda, Khasi, Bhil, Tharu, Bhotia, Buxa. Malto is a Dravidian language bearing stark resemblance with kurukh language of oraohs. The Munda tribes celebrate the Mage, Karam, Sarhaul and Phagu festivals. In addition to traditional festivals like Karam and Sahrai, Santhali dance and music is a major attraction. A section of this community has converted into Christians and leads a comparatively modern way of life. The tribe plays plenty of music and a wide range of musical instruments like drums, guitars, flutes, cymbals, etc. Although Santhals are settled cultivators but modern technologies could not affect their practices. Marriage system in Pakur District They mostly dwell on the hills and are inaccessible for the district administration. The people belonging to Santhal tribe are quite progressive and well settled. The Santhal tribes are a major tribe of West Bengal. Apart from this, modern attires are also common in this region which includes dhoti, Kurta – Pajama and shirts for men and saris for women. Santhal language belongs to munds family. The tribes in India are called by the collective term ‘Adivasis.’. They are the second-largest tribe in Kerala and are found mostly in the Palakkad region. They are basically agriculturists. Socio -Cultural Changes of Tribes and Their Impacts on Environment with Special Reference to Santhal in West Bengal Subrata Guha & Md Ismail** **Department of Geography, Aliah University, Kolkata, 700014 Abstract A tribe is a group of people living under primitive condition and still not popularly known to more modern culture. Nishi is the language spoken by them. This tribe habitation is mainly in the states of West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand and Assam. The Santhal Tribe is the third largest tribes of India. They depend on agriculture and livestock for their living and are great hunters. The people in the village are very conscious about the neatness of their a days they clean clothes with detergent but when they clean their bed spreads, kanthas and heavy cotton materials they use ash. Santhal mainly celebrate the Karam festival that comes in the month of September and October. Languages of Paharias are collective known as Malto which comprise of various fractions.

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