The content for reading, writing and mathematics is outlined not only by year group but also by strand or element. Woodbridge: John Catt Educational Limited. Bjork, 1992). Didau D and Rose N (2016) What Every Teacher Needs to Know About Psychology. Multiple, strategically spaced and strategically This can easily be integrated into the spiral curriculum, as students can be trained in using spreadsheets at the very beginning and then practise the ability regularly. research. 0

Designing a curriculum: The challenge faced by many specialist settings, Community curriculum-making: Mixing the ‘local’ with the National Curriculum, Exploring the impact of pedagogy and partnership on curriculum, conservation and attitudes. Dempster, F. N. (1988). Psychological Science, 1, 181-210. Our Owner Katie Norwood has been the owner and lead consultant at SpiralBound Advisors since 2017.

A final consideration was that – as is commonplace – sixth-form classes at Brentwood School have two teachers with an almost equal time split. 179 0 obj <> endobj paradigms suggest new concepts for training. Findings about distributed learning are Our questioning requires students to make connections between topics, which teaches them the important study skill of elaboration (Dunlosky, 2013). While the full impact of the shift from linear to spiral curriculum is yet to be evaluated, success in terms of student progress and engagement is suggested by both student voice and assessment. The UChicago STEM Education offers strategic planning services for schools that want to strengthen their Pre-K–6 mathematics programs. Another crucial skill in the IB is data-processing – including propagation of uncertainties.

Different terms are used to A third reason is that students find spaced Although this approach was made easier by the narrative-based structure of our specification, it is applicable to different subjects, with similar ideas proposed in history education (Fordham, 2014). The CAST program is outlined in detail in the 164-page CAST Leader Guide, which emphasizes the “need for” and “how to” of implementation fidelity.

Curriculum reform and teacher agency: How national policy translates to the classroom.

Retrieved from difficult learning can lead to more robust encoding of information and better long-term learning (Schmidt & application (pp. 2019). Another possibility is that effortful processing of the sort involved in In a spiral curriculum, material is revisited repeatedly over months and across grades. Distributing and managing the conditions of encoding and practice. This explanation identifies the spacing effect as an example of a “desirable difficulty” that spaced learning enhances long-term retention. In a spiral curriculum, learning is spread out over time rather than being concentrated in shorter periods. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment Publication 19: 7–13. Distributed learning: Data, metacognition, and educational implications. This makes planning for differentiation much easier as you can track an element of the curriculum from one year group to another. Delaney, P. F., Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L., & Spirgel, A.

Washington, DC: The spacing effect: A case study in the failure to apply the results of psychological I first heard of this approach in 2015, when a head of department decided to apply it to GCSE to tackle the new 2017 specifications. In a recent review of the literature, Lisa Son and Dominic Simon write, “On the whole, both in the Distributed practice in verbal recall Schmidt, R.A., & Bjork, R.A. (1992). enhances learning. diverse forms of learning. Everyday Mathematics, for example, weaves instruction, practice, and assessment in intricate patterns Fordham M (2014) Making history stick part 2: Switching the scale between overview and depth.

What might a knowledge-rich ‘humanities’ curriculum look like in the primary school? lengthy, and at times discursive review of the literature. lead to better long-term learning than spaced practice. Rohrer, D. (2009). Spacing and testing effects: A deeply critical, In

(2007). The ideas chosen were those important in securing understanding of the subject at GCSE and beyond, and those identified as poorly retained in mock examinations. What happened to curriculum in the early years? The “spacing effect” – the learning boost from distributing rather than massing learning and practice – has Another reason spiraling is not common in

When students are taught ideas in a specific context, they often struggle to apply these without the same cues (Didau and Rose, 2016). Mathematics Education, 40, 4–17. Frequent Practice of Basic Computation Skills, Building Proficiency Through Multiple Methods. implemented when those skills and concepts are encountered again later in the spiral. Several students noted how ‘light’ was treated as a particle in earlier topics, but as a wave for the double slit experiment, and questioned how that was possible – showcasing both critical thinking and ever-evolving communication skills. Engaging with research and using evidence, Teacher training and professional development, Cognitive Load Theory and its application in the classroom, Skilful questioning: The beating heart of good pedagogy,, Interim Issue: Evidence-informed Practice, Issue 7: Arts, creativity and cultural education, Issue 9: Learning, leadership and teacher expertise, Issue 10: Developing evidence-informed teaching techniques to support effective learning, Special Issue January 2019: Education Technology. Spiraling leads to better long-term mastery of facts, skills, and concepts. Department for Education (2006) Primary framework for literacy and numeracy. One example of this is shown in Table 1. Psychological Science 19(11): 1095–1102. Caruso S (2019) Constructivism (Two Cognitive Theorists Compared). motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. Teaching ideas across multiple contexts can make learning more flexible.

may also be discouraged to realize how much their students forget, something that is more apparent with One possibility is that massing reduces Available at: (accessed 26 March 2019). �%.N�����3&3Izngt*+k[��´�[��%@������f� ��J!ŒL 4=! Educational Spiral curricula are common in narrative-based approaches (Wilson et al., 2015) and are often associated with enquiry-type learning. The course is still in its first year of teaching, so it is too early to evaluate the impact, but students have risen to the challenge of tackling core ideas in Year 9, and teachers have enjoyed the increased opportunity to highlight connections between different topics. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Available at: (accessed 25 March 2019). Spiral curriculum is a cognitive theory proposed by Jerome Bruner, based on iterative revisiting of topics at increasing levels of difficulty.

Recall of knowledge is promoted by regular low-stakes quizzes. Our knowledge-rich curriculum – so what do we want them to learn?

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