Such variability is likely to apply to the Corbion supply chain as well, meaning that the high uncertainty on the NO2 emissions should be considered when interpreting the results. The sugarcane sucrose solution, at this point, is also nearly colorless, and it likewise undergoes multiple-effect vacuum evaporation. Atmosphere 5:669–685.

When accounting for biogenic carbon in biobased materials, two principal approaches can be used [27]: Biogenic carbon is accounted for as carbon storage, thus considering that CO2 is captured from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and retained within the bio-based material (cradle to gate LCA).


The overall GWP calculated by the two studies (500 kg CO2 eq/ton PLA) and the contribution of the different stages remains very similar: the increase in the GWP in sugar production (DLUC and improved mill modelling) is compensated by a lower impact of chemicals and energy (improved efficiency and differences in the Thai grid mix).

From a cradle-to-gate perspective, considering the uptake of carbon dioxide in the PLA molecule, the GWP is 501 kg CO2 eq/ton PLA. https://docs.european-bioplastics.org/publications/EUBP_Facts_and_figures.pdf. Damp sugar crystals are dried by being tumbled through heated air in a granulator. Figure 2 and Table 4 show the breakdown of the contributions of the different production stages to the total GWP of PLA. There is significant potential to further reduce the environmental impacts of PLA production.

AWARE is a water use midpoint indicator representing the relative available water remaining per area in a watershed after the demand of humans and aquatic ecosystems has been met. Office of Agricultural Affairs, Bangkok (011-66-2) 205-5106 . Therefore, it is grown in tropical or subtropical areas. Thailand's dry season started in November and usually lasts through April, although this year authorities say it could go on through June. PLA can be produced from many carbon feedstocks, sourced from various geographic regions through a wide range of technologies, with distinct efficiencies and performances.

The methodology was applied consistently to all the components of the analysis. Correspondence to

The juice from the mills, a dark green color, is acid and turbid.

These end-of-life options contribute to circularity through carbon and mineral nutrient recycling, by the application of compost in agriculture soils. Decline in sugar production of Thailand along with India is expected help improve world sugar prices. PLA production has multiple by-products, as identified in Fig.
The Thai authorities’ prediction is in line with a U.S. Department of Agriculture report in April, which expected cane and sugar output to fall, citing reduced sugarcane acreage as farmers turn to more profitable crops. However, India’s sugar inventories are still expected grow. The energy produced is used within the mill and is enough to meet the process requirements. While fossil-based polymers started to be widely commercialized in the 1950s, biobased polymers were developed decades later, and as consequence are still making use of less mature technologies.

Thailand produced 130.9 million tonnes of cane in the production year 2018/19, or 14 million tonnes of refined sugar. These GHG emissions were largely related to the consumption of energy, which accounts for 40% of the total emissions.

The sensitivity analysis covered the following parameters: (1) total impacts of sugarcane production, arbitrarily varied in the range − 20% to 20% (2) amount of irrigation water used for sugarcane, based on the theoretical water requirement of the crop in Thailand [30] and no irrigation and (3) Direct land use change varied between zero and the Thai average for sugarcane [29]. Combined, these measures have the potential to reduce the CO2 footprint from 501 to − 909 kg CO2 eq/ton PLA, and further reduce the environmental footprint of PLA. Electricity was by far the most important by-product in terms of contribution to GWP. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2009.00491.x, Groot Wim et al (2010) Production and purification of lactide. The wastewater treatment plant is included in the system boundaries. These steps consumed fossil energy as heat and electricity (61%). The main impacts of PLA production are related to the agricultural feedstock production and to the manufacturing process of PLA from sugar. The sugar extraction rate is expected to increase to 109 kilograms per ton of cane, compared to 107.9 kilograms per ton of cane in MY2016/17 Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles. Office of Agricultural Affairs, Bangkok (011-66-2) … In addition to complying with the Corbion Cane Sugar Code, Corbion requires all its cane sugar suppliers to become members of BonsucroFootnote 5 and expects them to work towards implementation of the Bonsucro Production Standard. This expansion occurs due to the conversion of forest (13%), perennial crops (1%) and annual crops (11.8%) [29].

Identified as sustainability requirement [17]; The increased amount of electricity exported to the grid to the hypothetical value of 100 kWh/ton cane. Thailand consumes about 2.5 million tonnes of its sugar production domestically and exports the remainder. Thailand's sugar output to hit nine-year low due to drought, PM to launch ‘Naya Pakistan Certificates’ for Overseas Pakistanis, Country moving in right direction despite COVID-19 challenge, tweets PM, Lahore's rising air pollution could raise death risk for COVID-19 patients: Report, Security assurances for non-nuclear states: UNGA adopts Pakistan's resolution with big majority, Pentagon hires new advisor to rush US troop withdrawals from Afghanistan, Pakistan’s Remittances remain over $2bn for Fifth consecutive month, Long-awaited PSM transaction structure to be discussed next week, External debt, liabilities hit historic level of $113.8bn, Govt plans to raise $1bn thru issuance of Eurobonds, FBR takes notice after extravagant wedding video went viral, PTCL to establish Pakistan’s first Cloud Marketplace, TPL Properties to build Technology Park in Karachi, CM Punjab gives the approval to run Green Electric Buses, Pakistan enters the $1 trillion global cloud kitchen market amidst pandemic.

Raw sugar futures are expected to rise a further 3pc by the end of the year, boosted by a tightening in supplies.

Bridging these gaps can provide relevant information for academic researchers, brand owners and policy makers on the potential environmental impacts of biobased plastics, recognized as building blocks of the bio-economy and circular economy. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The GHG emissions from the lactide and PLA production steps were mainly related to natural gas and electricity consumed by the plant. Want create site?

Figure 5 shows the results of these scenarios on GWP, demonstrating that the electricity export has the largest positive impact. FAOSTAT. Sugar imports from Thailand enjoy upswing following ATIGA enforcement.

J Clean Prod 153:457–464.

This carbon is eventually released at the end of the product lifecycle, with a net neutral impact on the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Sum of agricultural and urban land occupation from ReCiPE 2008.

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