Notice in the figure that some values occasionally fall below zero. The proportion of flow going into each downstream component is proportional to the back pressire of each component. Distributors are water mains that are located near the water users, which also supply water to individual fire hydrants. Back pressure goes the opposite way from flow and pressure. Tanks decouple back pressure as they do pressure and flow. [6], A water distribution system consists of pipelines, storage facilities, pumps, and other accessories. The flow into one end of a pipe, for example is the same as the flow out the other end. The Tee() method divides a single input flow into two output flows. (unless the back pressure caused by the pipe's resistance and other components beyond it in the line is too high). The integrity of the systems are broken down into physical, hydraulic, and water quality.[3]. Sedimentation is when solids are settled within the pipes, usually at recesses between the scaling build-ups. When there is a change in the velocity of water flow (such as sudden use of a fire hydrant), the settled solids will be stirred up causing water to be discolored. Water distribution systems meet fire protection needs for: cities. Large diameter water mains called primary feeders are used to connect between water treatment plants and service areas. They include: pipes. It's transmitted from the downstream component to the upstream component. Different colors are used to show the output of different components. The deterioration can be caused by physical or chemical factors. This reduces the chance of leaching of trace metal from the pipe materials into the water. Structural deterioration may be caused by many reasons. One switch is set to turn on when the tank level is above a certain minimum value. It also includes the circulation and length of time that the water travels within a distribution system which has impacts on the effectiveness of the disinfectants. A ring system is a topology with each water main that go to each road, and there is a sub-main that is branched off the water main to provide a circulation of two directions. It represents a house, factory, or farm, or a group of such water consumers. The other turns on when the level is above a certain maximum value (when the tank is full). The bottom storage area is called supporting storage, and the upper part which would be at the similar height of an elevated water tower is called useful storage. The Switch class has a special relationship to the Tank class. According to WHO, the most significant contributor of lead in water in many countries is the lead service line.[6]. Water distribution systems consist of an interconnected series of components. Physical hazards include turbidity of water, odors, colors, scales which are buildups of materials inside the pipes from corrosions, and sediment resuspension. At the center of each zone, the water is delivered radially toward the customers. Let's define the relationship between switches and tanks by saying that a switch is owned by a tank. Analyses are done to assist in design, operation, maintenance and optimization of water distribution systems. Each tank is typically associated with two switches. I am interested in this project. There is a service valve (also known as curb stop) on the service line located near street curb to shut off water to the user's building. This includes the corrosion of metal pipe surfaces and connections. Every component in the system has three important aspects: flow, pressure and back pressure.

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